Venezuela has had devastating experiences of political upheavals and coups since the 1990s. The socialist movement of Hugo Chavez (July 28, 1954 – March 5, 2013) commenced two failed coup attempts with the military. Only after that did they come to govern through elections in 1998, only to fall victim to a coup attempt shortly after.
Between February 27, and March 8, 1989 rising inflation and unemployment led to protests and uprisings in the capital of Venezuela, Caracas. The violent clashes between the people and President Carlos Andres Perez of these days became a part of Venezuela’s history and are called Caracazo, which roughly translates to the big event in Caracas. The number of people who died during these days remains controversial, but is estimated to be between 300 and 3,000. 
Three years later a group of military officers led by Colonel Hugo Chavez, then aged 38, decided to overthrow the government. The movement was named after the founder of the South American independence movement Simon Bolivar. On February 4, 1992 they tried for the first time to overthrow the government of President Perez. However, the coup failed costing 18 lives and leaving 60 wounded before Chavez handed himself over. The authorities allowed him to appear on national television to persuade his followers to give up. While his statements were to be seen nationwide he promised to lay down the arms only temporarily “por ahora”. On November 27, 1992 there was a second coup attempt without Chavez that also failed. Chavez took the responsibility and spent two years in prison before being released early. 
After Chavez was released from custody he founded his political movement. The Movement for a Fifth Republic (Movimiento V Republica/MVR) entered the presidential election in 1998 and later became the unified Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela/PSUV). Chavez and his political movement promised to dismiss corrupt politicians, convene a constituent assembly and find a way between communism and capitalism for the 78% of those who lived in poverty. With a turnout of 78% Chavez won the presidential election on December 6, 1998 with 56.2% against 40.0% for his opponent Henrique Salas Romer. 
The Chavez administration promised to redistribute large parts of the oil export revenues. Although Venezuela has the largest oil reserves in the world, people have always struggled with poverty. Chavez himself had indigenous ancestors and a provincial accent with which he clearly differed from the then average politicians. In the first years of the Chavez administration, however, he fought with declining approval ratings. The state-owned oil company PDVSA, the Catholic Church and large sections of the political class turned away from him and his approval rating fell from 80% to 30%. This led to pro- and anti-Chavez demonstrators at the beginning of April 2002. During a confrontation on the morning of April 11, 2002 shots were fired at the Llaguno Bridge (Puente Llaguno) costing 19 lives and leaving 127 wounded. 
On the evening of April 11, 2002 it was suddenly and surprisingly announced that Chavez had resigned as president of Venezuela. The military took Chavez into custody after officers refused to open fire on protesting civilians. Chavez was then held in a military base in Caracas. President of the Venezuelan Chamber of Commerce and Industry (Fedecamaras) Pedro Carmona was then appointed President. But on the 13th of April 2002 the mood started to change.
Carmona wanted to undo all changes of the Chavez administration and it was rumored that Chavez has refused to resign. On April 14, 2002 parts of the Chavez administration refused to support Carmona, and huge crowds demonstrated in front of the seat of government Miraflores, whereupon members of the military seized the seat of government Miraflores and the Carmona administration fled. Afterwards civilians stormed the state broadcaster and forced the reporting on the end of the Carmona administration. That same day members of the Chavez administration returned. And on the evening of April 14, 2002 Hugo Chavez was flown in by helicopter and greeted by a jubilant crowd in Miraflores. 
What my rivals don’t understand … is that Hugo Chavez is not Chavez but the people of Venezuela. ~ Hugo Chavez 
The events on the Llaguno Bridge (Puente Llaguno) are considered to have caused the overthrow of Chavez. The protesters who were against Chavez demonstrated on April 11, 2002 towards the seat of government Miraflores when the National Guard used tear gas. All roads to the seat of government Miraflores except the Llaguno bridge (Puente Llaguno) were blocked by the National Guard. And when the demonstrators wanted to pass the Llaguno Bridge (Puente Llaguno) shots were fired, and 19 people died and 127 were wounded. However the documentary “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised” shows the events from a wider angle and that the road under the Llaguno Bridge (Puente Llaguno) was empty. Who the shooters were is open to debate. [1en,34m28s]
Carmona is a businessman from Venezuela who was briefly appointed President in April 2002. Among his actions was the dissolution of the parliament, the dismissal of the Chavez administration and the switch to the Constitution before the Chavez administration. After the coup failed and Carmona fled he received political asylum in Colombia. 
Never in the history of Latin America had the media played quite so prominent a role in facilitating the overthrow of a democratically elected government ~ Foreign Policy 
According to Le Monde diplomatique and Foreign Policy, the mainstrem media in Venezuela have supported the coup and anti-government demonstrations. Both accuse the media of reporting only the position against Chavez. And after the Miraflores was retaken the press refused to report it. It was only reported about the end of the coup after the state broadcaster was taken. [1en,59m00s]
Why has the United States never had a coup? Because there’s no American Embassy in Washington! ~ Latin American Saying
According to the then secretary-general of OPEC Ali Rodriguez Chavez was warned before the coup. According to Rodriguez he called Chavez and warned that Libya and Iraq were planning a new oil embargo on the US for their support for Israel. And in order to secure the supply for the USA a coup had been foreseeable in Venezuela.
Since the US imported already 15% of its oil from Venezuela in 2002, they have a significant interest in Venezuela. Later it became known that members of the Bush administration in the months leading up to the coup attempt met with its protagonists and Carmona. The US Department of Defense has also admitted that General Lucas Romero Rincon visited the Pentagon in December 2003 for two days and agreed that Chavez must resign. The Bush administration and the Pentagon however have rejected any responsibility and were according themselves always against a coup. However these statements are in contradiction to the fact that the US government immediately blamed Chavez after he was arrested.